اثر کود پتاسیم به همراه قارچ Piriformospora indica و باکتری Pantoea ananatis بر عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد و جذب پتاسیم در برنج رقم طارم محلی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی


1 زراعت، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری

2 گروه زراعت، پژوهشکده ژنتیک و زیست‌فناوری کشاورزی طبرستان، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری

3 پژوهشکده ژنتیک و زیست‌فناوری کشاورزی طبرستان، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری


برنج به عنوان یک غله مهم در رژیم غذایی بسیاری از مردم جهان و ایران اهمیت دارد. همچنین، مصرف بی‌رویه کودهای شیمیایی در مزارع برنج نیز موجب بروز مشکلات زیست‌محیطی شده که استفاده از کودهای زیستی به‌عنوان جایگزینی مناسب برای تولید محصول سالم به‌همراه کاهش مخاطرات محیطی از اهمیت بسزایی برخوردار است. بنابراین، به ‌منظور ارزیابی باکتری Pantoea ananatis و قارچ اندوفیت Piriformospora indica بر عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد و جذب پتاسیم برنج (رقم ’طارم محلی‘)، پژوهشی در مزرعه‌ واقع در شهرستان جویبار در سال 1395 انجام شد. آزمایش به‌صورت کرت‌های خردشده در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار اجرا گردید. تیمارها شامل چهار سطح کود سولفات پتاسیم (صفر، 60، 120 و 180 کیلوگرم‌ در هکتار) به‌عنوان کرت اصلی و تلقیح در چهار سطح عدم تلقیح ریشه برنج به‌عنوان تیمار شاهد، تلقیح با باکتری، تلقیح با قارچ و تلقیح توأم با باکتری و قارچ به‌عنوان کرت فرعی بودند. طبق نتایج، اثرات اصلی بر صفاتی از قبیل تعداد خوشه در کپه، طول خوشه، تعداد خوشه‌چه پر در خوشه، تعداد خوشه‌چه پوک در خوشه، عملکرد شلتوک، عملکرد زیستی، شاخص برداشت و جذب پتاسیم دانه معنی‌دار و اثر متقابل تیمارها نیز در برخی صفات مورد مطالعه معنی‌دار بود. تلقیح توأم با باکتری و قارچ به‌عنوان بهترین تیمار، موجب افزایش معنی‌دار تعداد خوشه در کپه، طول خوشه، تعداد خوشه‌چه پر در خوشه، عملکرد شلتوک، عملکرد زیستی، شاخص برداشت و جذب پتاسیم دانه به‌ترتیب 52/4، 65/4، 7/15، 4/19، 85/6، 7/11 و 1/22 درصد و کاهش تعداد خوشه‌چه پوک در خوشه به مقدار 8/41 درصد نسبت به شاهد شد. همچنین، با مصرف کود پتاسیم از صفر تا 180 کیلوگرم‌ در هکتار مقدار تمامی صفات فوق به‌جزء تعداد خوشه‌چه پوک در خوشه افزایش یافت. در مجموع، طبق نتایج تجزیه رگرسیون تلقیح توأم باکتری و قارچ علاوه بر کاهش مصرف کود پتاسیم به مقدار 5/55 کیلوگرم در هکتار (40 درصد)، عملکرد شلتوک را به میزان 790 کیلوگرم در هکتار (6/18 درصد) نسبت به شاهد افزایش داد که از آن می‌توان به‌خوبی در زراعت پایدار برنج استفاده کرد.


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Potassium Fertilizer with Piriformospora indica and Pantoea ananatis on Yield, Yield Components and Potassium Uptake of Rice (cv. ‘Tarom Mahalli’)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zahra Gilani 1
  • Hemmatollah Pirdashti 2
  • Esmaeil Bakhshandeh 3
چکیده [English]

Rice is an important cereal in the diet of many people in the world and Iran. An overuse of chemical fertilizers in rice fields also causes environmental problems so that the use of biofertilizers as an appropriate alternative is important for producing healthy crops and reducing environmental hazards. Therefore, in order to evaluation of the effect of Pantoea ananatis and Piriformospora indica on yield, yield components and potassium uptake of rice(cv. ‘Tarom Mahalli’), a field experiment was carried out in Joybar city in 2016. The experiment was conducted in a split plot arrangement based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Four levels of potassium sulfate fertilizer (PSF: 0, 60, 120 and 180 kg.ha-1) were used as the main plot and four levels of inoculation (non-inoculation as control, rice root seedling inoculation with P. ananatis and P. indica, separately, and co-inoculation treatment) served as the sub-plots. The results indicated that all studied traits such as panicle number per hill (PN), panicle length (PL), number of filled (NFG) and empty (NEG) grain per panicle, paddy yield (PY), biological yield (BY), harvest index (HI) and potassium uptake (PU) in the grain of rice were significantly affected by PSF and various inoculation treatments and also the interaction effect between them were statistically significant in more studied traits. Co-inoculation treatment significantly increased PN, PL, NFG, PY, BY, HI and PU by 4.52, 4.65, 15.7, 19.4, 6.85, 11.7 and 22.1 percentage, respectively, and the NEG was decreased by 41.8 percentage as compared to the control. Furthermore, values of all studied traits increased with the addition of PSF from zero to 180 kg.ha-1, except for NEG. According to the results of regression analysis, consequently, the co-inoculation treatment as the best, reduced the application of PSF ~55.5 kg.ha-1 (about 40%) and increased PY ~790 kg.ha-1 (about 18.6%), compared to the control which can be used in the sustainable rice system production as well as.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biofertilizer
  • Plant Growth Promoting Microorganisms
  • Potassium Sulfate
  • Rice
  • Root Inoculation
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