عنوان مقاله [English]
Background and Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of fenugreek planting as a sunflower on the phenology, grain quality and yield of sunflower cultivars and to determine the most appropriate time for planting of live sunflower.
Methods and Materials: This experiment was done in 2016-17 growth season at Razi University. The experiment was conducted as split plot based on randomized complete block design. First factor was the sowing fenugreek at four levels (control (without living mulch), 15 days before sowing of sunflower, simultaneous sowing with sunflower, 15 days after sowing of sunflower) and the second factor was three sunflower cultivars (Progress, Farrokh, Lakomka).
Results: Planting of fenugreek as living mulch pre-sunflower led to a decrease in the quantitative and qualitative yield of sunflower. In 15 days before sunflower condition, grain, oil and protein yields of sunflower,were 38.5%, 37.9% and 43.6% lower than control treatment, respectively. In addition, the phenological stages of sunflower growth was delayed in pre-sunflower sowing conditions. So that the occurrence of staring, flowering, head formation and physiological maturity were 69.8, 21.8, 24.5 and 82.6 days, respectively (4.4, 1.1, 1 and 3 day) more than control conditions. However, planting of living mulch simultaneous and 15 days after sunflower had a positive effect on the quantitative and qualitative yield of sunflower grains. Grain, oil and protein yields of sunflower were 39.4%, 36.4% and 43.3% higher than control, respectively.