اثر کودهای زیستی بر برخی خصوصیات کمی و کیفی ماشک مراغه (Vicia sp.) در شرایط دیم و آبیاری تکمیلی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه ارومیه

2 دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه ارومیه

3 دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه ارومیه

چکیده

این آزمایش به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در دانشگاه ارومیه در دو سال زراعی (1395 و 1396) انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل کشت دیم و یک بار آبیاری تکمیلی به عنوان فاکتور اول و تیمار کاربرد کودهای زیستی در هشت سطح شاهد (عدم کاربرد کود زیستی)، قارچ میکوریزا (Rhizophagus intraradices)، ازتوباکتر، تیوباسیلوس، ازتوباکتر+قارچ میکوریزا (R. Intraradices)، تیوباسیلوس+قارچ میکوریزا
(R. intraradices)، ازتوباکتر+تیوباسیلوس و ترکیب ازتوباکتر+تیوباسیلوس+قارچ میکوریزا (R. intraradices) به عنوان فاکتور دوم بودند. نتایج نشان داد با انجام آبیاری تکمیلی تعداد غلاف در بوته، درصد فسفر دانه و محتوی رطوبت نسبی برگ افزایش یافت. اما بیشترین درصد پتاسیم و پروتئین دانه در شرایط دیم بدست آمد. همچنین تعداد غلاف در بوته، درصد فسفر، پتاسیم و پروتئین دانه و محتوی رطوبت نسبی برگ تحت تأثیر کاربرد کودهای زیستی افزایش معنی‌داری یافتند. بطوری که کاربرد ترکیبی میکوریزا + ازتوباکتر، تعداد غلاف در بوته، درصد فسفر، پتاسیم و پروتئین دانه و محتوی رطوبت نسبی برگ ماشک را به ترتیب  55/15، 25/34، 20، 22/21 و 04/17 درصد نسبت به تیمار شاهد افزایش داد. حداکثر کلونیزاسیون (45/63 درصد)، عملکرد زیستی (5/4986 کیلو گرم در هکتار)، عملکرد دانه (29/1873 کیلو گرم در هکتار) و عملکرد پروتئین (503 کیلوگرم در هکتار) در شرایط انجام آبیاری تکمیلی و کاربرد ترکیبی قارچ میکوریزا و ازتوباکتر بدست آمد. با توجه به یافته‌های این تحقیق، استفاده تلفیقی کودهای زیستی جهت افزایش عملکرد و حفظ تولید در دراز مدت در سیستم تلفیقی درخت-گیاه زراعی تحت شرایط دیم می‌تواند در راستای کشاورزی پایدار مطلوب ‌باشد.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Biofertilizers on Some Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Vetch Maragheh (Vicia sp.) under Rainfed and Supplementary Irrigation

نویسندگان [English]

  • saeid Heydarzadeh 1
  • Jalil Jalilian 2
  • Ali Reza Pirzad 2
  • Rashid Jamei 3
چکیده [English]

This factorial experiment was done as a complete randomized block design with three replications at Urmia University in two years (2016 and 2017). Experimental treatments included once supplemental irrigation and dry farming as the first factor and application of biofertilizers in eight levels, Control (non-application of fertilizer), Mycorrhizal fungus (Rhizophagus intraradices), Azotobacter, Thiobacillus, Azotobacter+mycorrhiza (R. intraradices), Thiobacillus+mycorrhiza (R. intraradices), Azotobacter+ Thiobacillus, Azotobacter+Thiobacillus+Mycorrhizal fungus (R. intraradices)} were the second factor. The results showed that supplementary irrigation increased the number of pods per plant, seed phosphorus content and leaf relative humidity. The high percentage of potassium and protein were obtained in farming condition. Also, the number of pods per plant, the percentage of phosphorus, potassium and protein content of seeds and leaf relative humidity increased significantly due to the application of biological fertilizers. Thus, the combined application of mycorrhizal + Azotobacter treatment increased the number of pods per plant, the percentage of phosphorus, potassium and protein of seeds and content of leaf relative humidity by 15.55%, 34.25%, 20.22%, and 17.04%, respectively, as compared to the Control. Maximum colonization percentage (63.45%), biological yield (4986.5 kg.ha-1), grain yield (1873.29 kg.ha-1) and protein yield (503 kg.ha-1) were obtained under supplementary irrigation and combined application mycorrhizal fungus and Azotobacter. Therefore, according to the findings of this research, the combined use of biological fertilizers to increase yield and maintain long-term production in an Agroforestry system under rain-fed conditions can be desirable for sustainable agriculture.
 
 
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Agroforestry
  • Azotobacter
  • Mycorrhiza
  • Sustainable Agriculture
  • Thiobacillus
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