تاثیر محلول‏پاشی مواد آلی بر برخی خصوصیات کمی و کیفی رازیانه (Foeniculum vulgar L.) در سطوح مختلف آبیاری

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی


استادیار، گروه تولیدات گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی برد سیر، دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان، کرمان


به‏منظور بررسی اثر محلول‏پاشی سالیسیلیک اسید، اسپرمیدین و متانول بر عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد، محتوی پرولین و کمیت و کیفیت اسانس گیاه رازیانه در سطوح مختلف آبیاری، آزمایشی به صورت کرت­های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی مرکز آموزش عالی بردسیر در سال زراعی 1396-1395 اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل سطوح مختلف کم آبیاری شامل 25، 50 و 90 درصد ظرفیت زراعی، به عنوان عامل اصلی و محلول‏پاشی سالیسیلیک اسید با غلظت یک میلی‏مولار، اسپرمیدین با غلظت 2/0 میلی‏مولار و متانول با غلظت 30 درصد حجمی به عنوان عامل فرعی بود. نتایج نشان داد افزایش سطوح تنش خشکی، منجر به افزایش معنی‏دار درصد اسانس و محتوی پرولین، و کاهش معنی‏دار دیگر صفات مورد بررسی شد. بیشترین درصد اسانس (86/2) در آبیاری 25 درصد ظرفیت زراعی و کمترین آن (84/1 درصد) در 90 درصد ظرفیت زراعی بدست آمد. به استثنای درصد اسانس، کلیه صفات مورد بررسی تحت تاثیر تیمار محلول‏پاشی (P≤0.01) قرار گرفتند. برهمکنش دو تیمار بر تعداد شاخه فرعی، تعداد چتر در بوته، تعداد دانه در چتر، وزن هزار دانه، عملکرد بیولوژیک، عملکرد دانه، عملکرد اسانس و میزان پرولین معنی‏دار بود. نتایج نشان داد در آبیاری 90 درصد ظرفیت زراعی بیشترین عملکرد دانه (1081 کیلوگرم در هکتار)، عملکرد بیولوژیک (5413 کیلوگرم در هکتار)، عملکرد اسانس (65/20 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و میزان پرولین (87/32 میکرومول) با محلول‏پاشی متانول حاصل شد. در حالیکه، در سطوح 50 و 25 درصد ظرفیت زراعی، بیشترین مقدار این صفات در محلول‏پاشی سالیسیلیک اسید بدست آمد. در کلیه صفات، اختلاف معنی‏داری بین محلول‏پاشی اسپرمیدین و عدم محلول‏پاشی در سطوح مختلف آبیاری مشاهده نشد. بطور کلی، نتایج تایید نمود که محلول‏پاشی متانول برای شرایط عدم تنش مفید بوده و محلول‏پاشی سالیسیلیک اسید بخوبی توانست اثرات منفی تنش خشکی بر رازیانه را تعدیل نماید. 


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Organic Amendments on Some Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgar L (.as Affected by Different Irrigation Levels

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohadeseh Shamsaddin Saied
  • Roholla Moradi
چکیده [English]

In order to study the effect of salicylic acid, spermidine and methanol on yield, yield components, proline content, and essential oil quantity and quality of fennel in different levels of irrigation, an experiment was conducted as a split-plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications at Farm Research Station of the College of Agriculture in Bardsir in 2016. The experimental treatments were deficit irrigation levels (90%, 50% and 25% of the field capacity) assigned to main plot and foliar application of salicylic acid (1 mM), spermidine (0.2 mM) and methanol (30% vol) as subplots. The results showed that increased levels of drought stress resulted in significant increase of essential oil percentage and proline content, and significant decrease of other studied traits. The highest percentage of essential oil (2.86) was assigned to irrigation at 25% of the field capacity and the lowest (1.84) in 90% of the field capacity. All the studied traits were affected by foliar application (P≤0.01), except for essential oil percentage. The interaction effect of the treatments on number of branches, number of umbel per plant, number of seeds per umbel, 1000-seed weight, biological yield, seed yield, essential oil yield and proline content were significant. In irrigation at 90% of the field capacity, the highest seed yield (1081 kg.ha-1), biological yield (5413 kg.ha-1), essential oil yield (20.65 kg. ha-1) and proline (32.87 μmol) was related to methanol foliar application. However, at levels of 50 and 25% of the field capacity irrigation, the highest amount of these traits was found in salicylic acid foliar application. In all the traits, no significant difference was observed between spermidine foliar application and control treatment at all the irrigation levels. In general, the results confirmed that methanol foliar application was beneficial for non stress conditions, and the salicylic acid foliar application could satisfactory mitigate the negative effects of drought stress on fennel.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Drought
  • Essensial Oil
  • Methanol
  • Prolin
  • Salysilic Acid
  • Spermidine
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