اثر تاریخ‌ کاشت و نوع گیاه پوششی در برهمکنش سویا (Glycine max L.) و علف‌های هرز

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی


1 گروه زراعت،دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری

2 گروه زراعت، دانشکده علوم زراعی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری

3 گروه اکولوژی گیاهان زراعی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد


        به منظور بررسی اثر گیاهان پوششی در دو زمان کاشت بر روابط سویا و علف هرز آزمایشی در سال 1392 در مزرعه مرکز جهاد کشاورزی جویبار به صورت طرح بلوک­‌های کامل تصادفی با 10 تیمار و سه تکرار اجرا شد. تیمار‌های آزمایش شامل کاشت گیاهان پوششی شنبلیله graecum L.) (Trigonella foenum، ماشک گل­‌خوشه‌ای (Vicia sativa L.)، شبدر ایرانی (Trifolium  resupinatum L.) و خلر (Lathyrus sativus L.) به صورت همزمان و سه هفته بعد از کشت سویا و همچنین دو تیمار کاشت سویا تحت شرایط وجین و عدم وجین علف‌­های هرز بود. کمترین عملکرد دانه سویا در تیمار عدم وجین (4/749 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و بیشترین عملکرد دانه سویا (6/3792 کیلوگرم در هکتار) در تیمار کاشت ماشک در تاریخ کاشت دوم مشاهده گردید. درحالیکه بالاترین میزان ارتفاع، قطر ساقه، تعداد برگ، ماده خشک و اندازه برگ گیاهان پوششی در تاریخ اول کاشت ملاحظه گردید. در هر سه مرحله نمونه­برداری، بیشترین تراکم و زیست توده علف‌­های هرز  در کاشت خالص سویا در شرایط عدم وجین، و کمترین تراکم و زیست توده علف­‌های هرز در هر سه مرحله بررسی مربوط به تاریخ کاشت دوم ماشک بود. به نظر می‌رسد مالچ زنده ماشک از طریق تسریع در بسته شدن کانوپی، باعث مهار علف‌های هرز شده و با کاهش رقابت علف‌های هرز با گیاه زراعی افزایش عملکرد را نیز در پی داشته باشد.


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Sowing Dates and Types of Cover Crops on Soybean (Glycine max L.) and Weeds Interaction

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyyd Samaneh Hashemi 1
  • Faezeh Zaefarian 1
  • Esfandiar Farahmandfar 2
  • Milad Bagheri Shirvan 3
چکیده [English]

       The effect of planting time of cover crops on soybean -weed interaction, was assessed by experiment based on randomized complete blocks design with three replications in juybar during growth season of 2013. Treatments were included cover crops fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum L.), winter veteh (Vicia sativa L.), Persian clover (Trifolium resupinatum L.), and chickling pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) simultaneously and three weeks after soybean sowing as well as two soybean cultivars under weed and non-weed conditions. The lowest yield of soybean was observed in weed infestation (7449.4 kg.ha-1) and the highest yield of soybean (3792.69 kg ha-1) was observed in the second planting date of winter veteh. While, maximum cover crops height, stem diameter, leaves number, dry matter and leaf size were observed at the first planting date of them. Meanwhile, at all three sampling stages, the infested soybean with weeds had the highest density and weed biomass, and the lowest weed density and biomass were also observed in winter veteh cover crop at the second planting date in all three stages. It seems that winter veteh as a living mulch can reduce the weeds growth with accelerating canopy closure; also, decreasing weeds competition with the main crops, incrased, crop yield.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Competition
  • Morphological Traits
  • Sustainable Agriculture
  • Weed Biomass
  • Yield
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