تغییرات ماده آلی خاک و عملکرد محصول در سامانه‌های خاک‌ورزی حفاظتی و متداول در تناوب گندم-ذرت در منطقه زرقان فارس

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

بخش تحقیقات خاک و آب، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان فارس، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، زرقان، ایران

چکیده

به منظور بررسی اثر روش­های خاک­ورزی بر محتوای ماده آلی خاک و عملکرد محصول، پژوهشی مزرعه­ای در سال 1393 در زرقان استان فارس به صورت آزمایش کرت­های یک بار خُرد شده با سه تکرار در تناوب ذرت-گندم اجرا شد. نتایج نشان داد حفظ بقایا و کاهش عملیات خاک­ورزی منجر به بهبود ماده آلی خاک شد به گونه­ای که در عمق صفر تا 10 سانتی­متری، عملیات کم خاک­ورزی و حفظ بقایا نسبت به خاک­ورزی رایج دو درصد ماده آلی را افزایش داد. با افزایش عمق خاک، خاک­وزی رایج و حفظ بقایا نسبت به کم خاک­ورزی ماده آلی را یک درصد افزایش داد. عملکرد دانه گندم با انجام عملیات کم خاک­ورزی و حفظ بقایا نسبت به خاک­ورزی رایج 5/24 درصد بیشتر شد. بی خاک­ورزی منجر به کاهش 48 درصدی عملکرد دانه گندم نسبت به کم خاک­ورزی شد. علاوه براین، حفظ بقایای ذرت در بی خاک­ورزی منجر به افزایش 21 درصدی عملکرد دانه گندم نسبت به حذف بقایا شد. نتایج نشان داد عملکرد دانه ذرت در شرایط حفظ بقایای گندم با عملیات خاک­ورزی رایج و یا کم خاک­ورزی 34 درصد در مقایسه با بی خاک­ورزی افزایش یافت. در مقابل، حفظ بقایای گندم در بی خاک­ورزی منجر به افزایش 5/5 درصدی عملکرد دانه ذرت نسبت به حذف بقایا شد. بطور کلی، در مناطق خشک و نیمه خشک که کشت ممتد گندم-ذرت اتفاق می­افتد انجام عملیات کم خاک­ورزی و حفظ بقایای گیاهی به صورت ایستاده و با ارتفاع 30 سانتی­متر می­تواند موجب افزایش محتوای ماده آلی خاک و حفظ پتانسیل عملکرد هر دو محصول گردد.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Soil Organic Matter Changes and Crop Yield in Conservation and Conventional Tillage Systems under Wheat-Corn Rotation in Zarghan Region (Fars Province, Iran)

نویسنده [English]

  • Jahanbakhsh Mirzavand
چکیده [English]

      In order to evaluate the effects of tillage methods on soil organic matter (OM) content and crop yield, a field experiment was conducted under wheat-corn rotation based on split-plot design in three replications at Zarghan, Fars province. Results showed that the reduction of soil tillage operations accompanied by keeping crop residue can be improved OM content compared to conventional tillage (CT) methods. At a soil depth range of 0-10 cm, the OM content increased two % by applying reduced tillage (RT) method and residue retention compared to CT method. In deeper soil layers, OM content enhanced one % by CT method and residue retention compared to RT method. Results showed that grain yield of wheat increased 24.5% by applying RT method and corn residue retention compared to CT method. While, wheat yield decreased 48% by applying No-Till (NT) method compared to RT method. Furthermore, applying NT method and corn residue retention increased wheat yield by 21% compared to crop residue removal. In wheat residue retention, results showed that kernel yield of corn increased by 34% under CT and RT methods compared to NT method. In contrast, keeping wheat residue accompanied by NT method application can be increased kernel yield of corn at 5.5% compared to crop residue removal. It is concluded that, to maintain the crop yield potential and increase OM content under a consecutive corn-wheat rotation in arid and semi-arid regions, adopting RT method accompanied by keeping crop residue (standing residue with a height of 30 cm), is recommended.
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • No-Till
  • Plant Residue
  • Reduced Tillage
  • Soil fertility
  • Yield Components
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